Protection of Human Rights- The issue of human rights is now widely discussed internationally. What is meant by human rights? The answer to this question is – freedom of speech, freedom of association, rule of law, equality of all in the eyes of law and freedom of citizens from cruel and disrespectful punishment – the combined practice of these is human rights.
On the one hand, these human rights issues play a role in determining the nature of the state’s relationship with the state, on the other hand, the importance of security and commercial practices and rules in the current situation is also related to human rights. Sometimes it is seen that human rights considerations are secondary to security considerations.
Since the 1980s, the issue of human rights has become more important in international politics than ever before.
Protection of Human Rights- In fact, the idea of human rights dates back to the seventeenth century. At that time, it was thought that it was the responsibility of every state to respect the rights of its citizens.
The English Bill of Rights began with a complaint against King James II. It was then alleged that King James II was depriving citizens of their rights.
The solution is for the Prince of Orange to accept this demand.
The same accusation was leveled against King George III in the 18th American Declaration of Independence.
It was then said that an oppressor was unfit to be the ruler of an independent people. In 1789, the French Declaration of Rights stated that no one’s rights could be taken away.
After the Second World War, it was gradually recognized that how a government operates inside a country and how that government treats its own citizens, these issues can be considered by different countries as well. This consideration has been strengthened by the brutal torture and oppression in Nazi Germany.
Article 55 of the 1945 United Nations Charter states that the World Body shall promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all. Article 56 of the same charter states that all member states of the United Nations pledge to take steps to implement Article 55 jointly or individually in cooperation with the United Nations.
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Protection of Human Rights- Human rights were defined in 1948 by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It was adopted without any opposition. At the time, however, the Soviet bloc, South Africa and Saudi Arabia abstained.
In the years that followed, a number of international treaties pledged to uphold human rights. Notable among these are the European Convention on Human Rights (1950); The International Covenant on Human Rights (1950); The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966); The American Convention on Human Rights (1969); The Helsinki Accords (1975) and The African Charter on People’s and Human Rights (1981).
Since then, many NGOs have been formed to ensure that governments comply with these agreements.
As a result, countries that have committed grave human rights abuses continue to be condemned by international public opinion. Even before the 1980s, governments that violated human rights seldom faced such pressure.
Can human rights ever be ideological?
We are familiar with the brutal human rights violations in many countries of the world. Notable among these are the Pinochet government in Chile, the Marcos government in the Philippines, the white supremacist governments in South Africa, and the previous governments of President Alfonsin in Argentina.
In addition, many Latin American countries have horrific examples of human rights violations. In recent times, Zimbabwe’s Mugabe government has not gone less. The tyranny of his Savakh forces during the reign of Shah in Iran is also widely discussed. Indian journalists and intellectuals have written many books on human rights violations during the emergency rule of Indira Gandhi in India. In an America that is so proud of its human rights, the human rights of blacks have been grossly violated for centuries.
The issue of human rights has been used as a tool in international relations since the time of President Carter. After a tyrannical military government took power in Argentina, a Latin American country, in the 1976s, Guatemala witnessed extreme repression in the name of suppressing armed rebellion, and the Carter administration took a strong human rights stand against the apartheid government in South Africa.
To this end, the Carter-led US administration has adopted a strategy of maintaining dominance over world politics by presenting itself as a humanitarian in the name of human rights…But not during the Bush administration. What has happened in Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria and Egypt does not in any way testify to the United States’ respect for human rights.
Shackles of ideology
Despite being a universal commitment to human rights, it has not been able to free itself from the shackles of ideology. So it still seems that human rights as a whole have not been able to stand as a universal humanitarian ideal. In addition, there is a big difference in the approach to human rights.
This is the lesson of history when the class that has state power in its hands will want to perpetuate power by oppressing the hostile class. Real recognition of human rights will be achieved only when the needs of the state are eliminated from the face of the earth. Such a possibility does not seem apparent. Such a condition may arise after our next few men.